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Enterovirus D68: How Can You Keep Your Children Safe?

By: Wieke von Scheidt
Enterovirus

With the start of the Fall season the flu is not the only highly contagious disease we need to worry about.  People are getting  increasingly concerned about a virus, called Enterovirus D68 that is slowly making its way from state to state. Parents are particularly worried because it affects children more often than adults.  The symptoms start out with a mild cold to later become more severe, affecting children’s respiratory system.

What is it?

Enteroviruses have been around for a long time, usually causing colds, fever, headaches, vomiting, and rashes in addition to other symptoms. EV-D68 is an unusual strain causing more severe symptoms such as wheezing and difficulty breathing. This may cause particular concerns for parents with children who have lung problems or asthma because it is harder to recognize. In some cases kids had been hospitalized because they required mechanical ventilator in order to breathe properly. The Center of Disease Control is paying close attention to the development of this virus.

How can you get it?

D68 is spreading like many other viruses through body fluids, like saliva, nasal secretion, as well as other kinds of interactions. The time of year Enteroviruses seem to affect more people is in the Summer and the numbers decrease in the Fall.

How to protect yourself?

  • Keep away from sick people
  • Wash hands often with soap and warm water for about 20 seconds
  • Don’t put backpacks, purses, jackets or other items on restroom floors and counters.
  • Pack reusable water bottles instead of using public water fountains.
  • Carry hand sanitizer with you
  • Don’t share bottles, and utensils
  • Wipe down surfaces with disinfectant wipes
  • Avoid hugging and kissing while being sick

How to treat it?

There is no vaccine or specific medication to treat Enteroviruses. All that can be done is to relief patience of symptoms through mechanical ventilators, and over-the-counter medications for pain and fever. Therefore it is important for parents to take be cautious and take preliminary actions to avoid infections.

For more detailed information visit Centers of Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/index.html

http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/protecting-children-enterovirus-d68-201409227455
http://childrenshospitalblog.org/what-to-know-about-enterovirus-d68/
http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/ev-d68.html

A Lethal Dose of Caffeine

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By Eugene Y. Chan, M.D.

Recent news about tragic death of Anais Fournier hit the web.  She was 14 and she died after consuming two 24-ounce Monster Energy drinks over a 24-hour period.  She had an underlying heart arrhythmia that may have predisposed her to the adverse effects of caffeine.

Caffeine is a small molecule alkaloid that is found in many different types of plants.  It has a receptor-based mechanism of action that antagonizes the action of adenosine.  In clinical medicine, adenosine is sometimes utilized to treat certain irregular heartbeats, including some supraventricular tachycardias.  Decreasing the action of adenosine can therefore lead to a faster heart rate and can also predispose the heart to irregular heartbeats.  In the case of the very unfortunate 14-year old, she consumed caffeine which decreased action of the adenosine, thus increasing her likelihood of a fatal arrhythmia.

How much is too much?  One may say, “Let us calculate the lethal dose.”  The LD50, or lethal dose for killing 50% of tested animals, for rats is 192 mg/kg.  Extrapolating this to a 14-year old weighing 50 kg, this LD50 is 9.6 grams of caffeine.  Of course, these studies were not conducted in humans so this is only a ballpark estimate.  In a typical energy drink, there is approximately 200 – 300 mg of caffeine, although in some energy drinks, the actual amount is unclear, based on how the products are labeled.  We can assume that Anais probably consumed < 1 gram of caffeine from her two energy drinks, yet this was a fatal dose for her.  What the LD50 calculation is missing is both an understanding of both statistics as well as pharmacogenomics.  Statistics tells us that some individuals may very well have adverse events at a much lower dose of caffeine.  Part of this is based on a genetic makeup and how we react to certain molecules.  This is called pharmacogenomics.  In the case of Anais, she likely had a genetic cause of her underlying cardiac arrhythmia.  She may very well have been a slow metabolizer of caffeine, also based on her genetic makeup, leading this molecule to linger in her system much longer than that of her counterparts.  Without a whole genome study, of course, we would never know.

Overall, the lesson here is that receptor-based molecules, such as caffeine, can be extremely dangerous, depending on the specifics of your medical and genetic background.  For most people it may be fine, for others, it can unfortunately take push you over the threshold of safety.

Why you need mental clarity

By Eugene Y. Chan, MD

Somewhere around 3 AM in the morning at the Massachusetts General Hospital one day, I remember a particular instance of having to draw blood from a very ill patient.  By that time, I had already worked for 20 hours straight, with my beeper ringing every few minutes.  What is so urgent that requires a blood draw at this hour?  I looked at the patient’s medical record and saw a history of HIV and HCV.  This patient was in renal and liver failure.  I looked for a suitable vein in the antecubital fossa but could not find any.  I look elsewhere on the arm, but still no.  My eyes were feeling heavy from my day and also staring closely in the dark to look for a thin blue vein that I could target.  Finally, I found a potential vein, on the dorsal surface of the foot.  It was so thin and collapsed, but it was my only hope.  I knew that if I were not careful, I could indeed inadvertently stick myself, which could put me at risk for both HIV and HCV.  I also knew that I did not draw the patient’s blood, she would have a high likelihood of not making it through the night.  It is in times like this, where if your mind wanders, even for a brief moment, the outcome would be highly undesirable.  This is when you need mental clarity, this is when you need that moment of unwavering focus.  Have you been in a circumstance like this?  Maybe not treating a patient, but interviewing for a most coveted job, giving the most important sales presentation, or pushing yourself to win that race?  Fortunately, the outcome that morning was positive, the important medical tests were highly informative for the course of her care and the patient made it through the night.  There are situations like that that arise often, and often unexpected, and you have to be prepared to make those yours.  Stay focused and be at your best, always.

How to take Clarex

Clarex was made to eliminate mental limits and give you focus when taken properly. That being said, it’s time we told you the proper way to take Clarex to get the maximum effects it can offer. We base the amount you need to take from your Body Mass Index (BMI). If you’ are curious what your BMI is, click here to find out what yours is.

But for the best results, adults under 150lbs should take 1 tablet. If you weigh over 150lbs, 2 tablets will give you your best results. Take Clarex with at least 8oz of fluids, and adjust the dosage as needed according to exertion or activity.

Clarex is a mental clarity recovery formula meant to improve focus, concentration, and overall feeling of well-being. To achieve this level of clarity, take one tablet daily. Because Clarex is a stimulant free product, there is no risk of overdose or drug interaction. When taken as directed, users should feel the effects of Clarex within one week. Our all natural product typically will give users 4-5 hours of clear mental focus, improving performance.

Clarex can also be used as hangover relief, or as we like to call it at Clarex “Post-Celebratory Recovery.” With several key vitamins that lead of focus and mental clarity, Clarex can make that morning after a lot more enjoyable.

Now that you know a bit more about Clarex and how to use it, it’s time to take that next step and order Clarex by clicking here.

Eliminate mental limits today!

-Team CLAREX

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